Month: November 2020

Kvarner Tourist Board presented health tourism in Oslo

first_imgKvarner has a long and successful tradition of health tourism. Opatija, Crikvenica and Mali Lošinj were declared climatic health resorts in the 19th century, which permanently marked the entire region as a health destination, ie health tourism flourished and developed. The Kvarner Tourist Board brands health tourism under the name Kvarner Health & Wellbeing, and considers it one of the most important tourist products. The Tourism Development Strategy of the Republic of Croatia until 2020 defines health tourism as one of the leading tourist products with a leading role in extending the season and dispersing tourist activity. According to the Kvarner Tourist Board, only in Kvarner is health tourism offered and developed in an organized manner. This is achieved through joint activities of the Kvarner Tourist Board and the system of tourist boards and the first Health Tourism Cluster in Croatia.Health tourism is currently the fastest growing segment of the world market, with an annual growth rate of over 20%, and it is estimated that due to the aging of the world population, by 2050 about 30% of the population will be over 65 years old. World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) back in 2012, it recorded that health tourism-related travel reached 40 million passengers, and two years earlier revenues had exceeded $ 100 billion. World Health Organization (WHO) on the other hand, it predicts that by 2030, health protection and health care will become the world’s strongest industry and one of the biggest drivers of tourist travel. Health and tourism together will account for 22% of world GDP.Given the data presented in Kvarner, they are thinking about the future, and one of the markets that is very interesting for this region is Norway, with which there is a direct seasonal air connection. 6,7 million trips abroad are made annually in Norway, and the goal of the presentation of health tourism is to increase the number of arrivals of Norwegian guests to Kvarner and draw attention to this segment of the tourist offer as a motive for arrival, and extend the tourist season. Namely, the Norwegian health care system grants its citizens travel for treatment and rehabilitation abroad, especially in warm climates where better effects are possible than in the domicile country. Citizens with health needs most often travel accompanied by family and friends.Therefore, the Kvarner Tourist Board and the Scandinavian Representation of the Croatian Tourist Board in cooperation with the Croatian Embassy in Norway, organized a presentation of health tourism in Oslo, which was attended by numerous partners from Norway: travel agencies, insurance companies, patient associations and public life and media. The presentation is attended by the County Prefect of Primorje-Gorski Kotar County and the President of the Kvarner Tourist Board, Zlatko Komadina, stressed the importance of this presentation for the further development of business relations between Norway and the Kvarner region, as an attractive tourist destination. Director of the Kvarner Tourist Board, Ph.D. Irena Persic Zivadinov presented the tourist offer of the entire Kvarner with an emphasis on health tourism, and individually presented all participants from Kvarner.Director of the CNTB Representation for Scandinavia, Paul Šikić, spoke about Croatia as a tourist destination on the Norwegian market and about the positive trend of tourist traffic, dr. Vladimir Mozetič, the President of the Kvarner Health Tourism Cluster presented the offer of health tourism, and the Ambassador of the Republic of Croatia to Norway addressed the audience, Hrvoje Marušić. In addition to the Kvarner Tourist Board, Kvarner was also represented by the most prominent holders of health tourism.This presentation was preceded by an inspection, study visit by representatives of the agency “Kroatiahelsereiser” specializing in health tourism, which is owned by several patient associations and covers the national agency Helsereise Croatia, and organized by the Kvarner Tourist Board visited the most important attractions in Kvarner.last_img read more

Global wellness tourism revenues are growing 14 percent

first_imgThe Global Wellness Institute recently reported that the global revenues of wellness tourism in the period 2013-2015. increased by 14 percent, and how international wellness tourism has grown by 22 percent in two years, the portal reports Tourism Review.Global tourism wellness tourism revenue is $ 563 billion, and the sector is projected to grow by another 2020% by 37,5 to generate $ 808 billion in revenue. When it comes to leading markets, the U.S. remains the world wellness leader, with $ 202 billion in revenue. This is more than one third of the total revenue of wellness tourism and three times more than the second-ranked Germany. China proved to be the fastest growing market, with its revenues growing by more than 300% (from $ 12,3 billion to $ 29,5 billion) and jumping from 9th to 4th place.In total, the top five countries (USA, Germany, France, China, Japan) represent 61% of the world market. As for the rest who are in the TOP 20, Brazil has entered the world elite of wellness tourism for the first time, surpassing Portugal. The countries that are most important on the rise in relation to wellness trips are Australia (+ 85%), China (+ 60%), Brazil (+ 46%), Indonesia (+ 40%) and Russia (+ 31%). Recently, a session of the Health Tourism Association Council at the Croatian Chamber of Commerce was held in Zagreb, where it was concluded that health tourism needs stronger promotion outside Croatia, and that Croatia should be put on the medical map of the world. “We are still not on the medical map of the world. We have made some development strides, but insufficient for significant participation in the medical tourism market, whose annual turnover is estimated at more than 100 billion US dollars, with a projection of future annual growth of 15 to 20 percent”, Said Ognjen Bagatin, director of the Bagatin Polyclinic at the session of the Council of the Community of Health Tourism (ZZT) at the Croatian Chamber of Commerce.Although there are about 1.100 medical tourism service providers in Croatia, only five percent of tourists (patients) come from foreign markets, primarily from Italy, Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. “This is extremely small, but the potential for the development of health tourism in Croatia, as a year-round tourism product, is very large, and research tells us that foreign tourists in this segment spend 2,5 times more than domestic”, Concluded Bagatin.All these data speak of an obvious trend and the need of tourists for wellness services and offers, which is more than enough an invitation to the tourism sector to focus on the wellness offer, as well as the great potential of wellness tourism in Croatia.Related news:Health Tourism Cluster established in ZagrebHealth tourism needs stronger promotion outside Croatialast_img read more

Children who understand emotions become more attentive over time

first_imgShare What is going on in the minds of young children when it seems they are daydreaming or appear to be scatterbrained?A study that my coauthor, Susanne A Denham, and I conducted recently shows that inattentive children may sometimes be absorbed in trying to figure out the emotions of their parents, siblings, teachers and friends.Young children are vitally interested in which emotions these important people in their small social world are feeling in respect to them and others, why they are doing so and whether their emotional displays are “real” or “fake.” Share on Facebook Pinterest Share on Twittercenter_img Email LinkedIn We found that children who have a better knowledge of emotions have no need to ponder these questions. They become free to pay attention to their social partners, to play and to academic learning, among many other things.Why emotion knowledge mattersThe research project, named “Elefant” – short for “Emotional Learning is fantastic” – surveyed 261 children from 33 kindergartens in Lower Saxony, a state in northern Germany, as well as their teachers and parents.Two separate surveys over an interval of 14 months were conducted. The study tested children’s “emotion knowledge”: that is, their ability to identify facial expressions of emotions and typical situations that give rise to emotions, such as happiness when receiving a birthday gift.It also included knowledge of strategies for controlling one’s own emotional expressions. A further component was the slowly developing insight that people often differ in their emotions because they appraise situations in light of their own preferences and beliefs.Along with this, children’s self-regulation of their behavior, their memory span and their language skills were tested.Children, especially young boys, who come from low socioeconomic status and do not understand complicated language usually tend to have more attention problems than others. The Elefant study confirmed these findings.In addition, it found that children who had a better understanding about emotions had fewer attention problems later on even after such demographic factors had been taken into account.In fact, children who understood more about emotions in the first survey managed to shape up their attention skills more than those who initially were largely ignorant of their own and others’ emotions.What is ‘emotion knowledge’?As the capacity to understand emotion progresses, one’s own behaviors and those of others become more predictable. This, in turn, absorbs less attention and promotes helpful behavior. It also leads to positive social relationships and academic achievements.Children with limited “emotion knowledge,” on the other hand, often seem distracted. Their attention may be occupied by the explanation of their own confusing emotional states, the negative emotions of others or the regulation of their own emotions.In addition, these young “emotional illiterates” tend to harbor more ill feelings because they believe that others will harm them. They tend to become more often angry and aggressive and have less productive relationships with teachers and peers.Last but not least, their academic achievements are compromised.Implications for children with ADHDThis study expands on previous research on the development of attention deficit problems (ADHD) in children.The common assumption in research was that children’s deficits in memory, attention and inhibition that are often summarily called executive functions partly explained their symptoms of ADHD.With our study, we find that children’s knowledge of emotions provides a better explanation for their attention control than other factors, such as demographics and executive functioning.“Emotion knowledge” should therefore occupy a more central role in future studies and in kindergarten education. Lessons on emotion knowledge should be included in training for teachers so as to help young children improve their attention.By Maria von Salisch, Professor of Developmental Psychology, Leuphana University and Susanne A Denham, University Professor of Pscyhology, George Mason UniversityThis article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.last_img read more

Psychological research shows how to make your New Year’s resolutions work

first_imgPinterest Share on Twitter LinkedIn Share The fresh start effectA series of recent studies supports the idea that the start of a new calendar year spurs initiation of activities related to self-improvement. They show Google searches for the term “diet”, gym attendance, and use of goal-support websites are highest in January and decline month by month over time.Researchers doing the studies call it the “fresh start effect” – the idea that particular days and dates serve as temporal landmarks, much like physical landmarks serve as demarcations of important places. In the case of temporal landmarks, the demarcation is between a past self, who has perhaps failed to meet goals, and the present self, who has goal pursuit at their fingertips.An additional set of studies, published recently in the journal Psychological Science by the same team, looked into this effect in more detail. In one experiment, participants asked to think about New Year’s Day as a meaningful day visited more websites related to goal-support (and spent more time browsing them) than those who were asked to think about it as an ordinary day.Directly speaking to the idea that a temporal landmark mentally separates people from their past selves, another experiment in the series established that framing a character in a short story as experiencing a new beginning led participants to perceive that character as different from who they’d been in the past.Importantly, that past/present differentiation statistically explained the effect of the new beginning on how much participants believed the character would pursue a previously unmet goal. In other words, the reason why goal pursuit flows from a new beginning is because of a perceived separation from past selves.Another reason why temporal landmarks may work to promote goal pursuit is that they spur a search for meaning in life. Research from 2014 shows people whose ages end in the digit 9 (29, for instance or 39, and so on) report more desire for having a sense of meaning in life.It’s not far-fetched to imagine that the end of the year (rather than a decade) might spur similar soul-searching. And that, in turn, can engender goals for self-improvement.Effective New Year’s resolutionsThere are several ways to set yourself up for success with your New Year’s resolution. Here are a few relatively easy, research-supported methods.Let the calendar be your guide: the “fresh start” research discussed above shows a similar goal-boosting effect for the start of the month (with activity peaking at the 1st of the month and declining towards the 30th or 31st). It even works for the start of the week (with activity peaking on Monday and declining through to Sunday). And there’s also a boost around birthdays and national holidays.Clearly, the calendar itself can help in re-committing to goals. From this view, “a case of the Mondays” could be the impetus to revisit the gym, shut off email in the evening, or trade spaghetti bolognese for salad.Don’t go it alone: setting a goal with friends can be the setup for success. One research study found signing up for a weight-loss program with friends and having that social support reinforced over time resulted in an increase from 75% to 95% in course completion. It even resulted in an increase from 24% to 66% in weight-loss maintenance, compared to signing up alone and receiving treatment not focused on social support.As you ring in the New Year, look around for those with whom you can set collective resolutions.Set a range: Many people are tempted (or even told) to set a specific goal. But research suggests that setting a range for a goal (planning to lose five to ten kilograms) rather than a specific target (aiming to lose eight kilos) will likely be more effective.In research where participants were given a bag of M&Ms and asked to eat as few as possible across 25 minutes, the average consumed five. But participants who set a range goal of how many M&Ms to eat (on average, between three and eight) rather than a specific number (on average, five) reported that their goal seemed simultaneously more challenging and more attainable.They also felt more accomplishment at the end of the 25 minutes as well as more interested in pursuing the goal again. The researchers who did that study found similar effects across a range of contexts, including weight loss and spending money.These tactics will help you leverage the “fresh start” of the New Year to get ahead. Let the rhythm of the calendar push you, find a buddy, and set a range for your resolution. Science will be on your side.This is the first article in our series about New Year’s resolutions, A Fresh Start. Look out for more articles on the topic in the coming days.By Lisa A Williams, Senior Lecturer, School of Psychology, UNSW AustraliaThis article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.center_img Email Share on Facebook New Year’s resolutions are set with the best of intentions. But they notoriously fail to translate into lasting behavioural changes.The new gym membership falls into disuse come February; items forbidden from the new diet sneak back into the pantry by March. Even goals to work less and spend more time with friends and family seem to fall by the wayside almost as soon as the holiday break is over and the brimming email inbox beckons.But recent psychological research highlights several reasons why these kinds of resolutions might actually work – as well as simple ways to set yourself up for success.last_img read more

Is psychology really in crisis?

first_imgShare Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Modern psychology is apparently in crisis. This claim is nothing new. From phrenology to psychoanalysis, psychology has traditionally had an uneasy scientific status. Indeed, the philosopher of science, Karl Popper, viewed Freud’s theories as a typical example of pseudoscience because no test could ever show them to be false. More recently, psychology has feasted on a banquet of extraordinary findings whose scientific credibility has also been questioned.Some of these extraordinary findings include Daryl Bem’s experiments, published in 2011, that seem to show future events influence the past. Bem, an emeritus professor at Cornell University, revealed that people are more likely to remember a list of words if they practise them after a recall test, compared with practising them before the test. In another study, he showed that people are significantly better than chance at selecting which of two curtains hide a pornographic image.Then there’s Yale’s John Bargh who in 1996 reported that, when unconsciously primed with an “elderly stereotype” (by unscrambling jumbled sentences containing words such as “Florida” and “bingo”), people subsequently walk more slowly. Add to this Roy Baumeister who in 1998 presented evidence suggesting we have a finite store of will-power which is sapped whenever we resist temptations such as eating chocolates. Or, in the same year, Ap Dijksterhuis and Ad Van Knippenberg showing that performance on Trivial Pursuit is better after people list typical characteristics of a professor rather than those of a football hooligan. LinkedIncenter_img Pinterest Email These studies are among the most controversial in psychology. Not least because other researchers have had difficulty replicating the experiments. These types of studies raise concerns about the methods psychologists use, but also more broadly about psychology itself.Do not repeatA survey of 1,500 scientists published in Nature last month indicated that 24% of them said they had published a successful replication and 13% published an unsuccessful replication. Contrast this with over a century of psychology publications, where just 1% of papers attempted to replicate past findings.Editors and reviewers have been complicit in a systemic bias that has resulted in high-profile psychology journals becoming storehouses for the strange. Many psychologists are obsessed with the “impact factors” of journals (as are the journals) – and one way to increase impact is to publish curios. Certain high-impact journals have a reputation of publishing curios that never get replicated but which attract lots of attention for the author and journal. By contrast, confirming the findings of others through replication is unattractive, rare and relegated to less prestigious journals.Despite psychology’s historical abandonment of replication, is the tide turning? This year, a crowd-sourced initiative – the OSC Reproducibility project – attempted to replicate 100 published findings in psychology. The multinational collaborators replicated just over a third (36%) of the studies. Does this mean that psychological findings are unreliable?Replication projects are selective, targeting studies that are cheaper and less technically complicated to replicate or those that are simply unbelievable. Other projects such as “Many Labs” have reported a replication rate of 77%. All initiatives are non-random and headline replication rates reflect the studies that are sampled. Even if a random sample of studies were examined, we don’t know what would constitute an acceptable replication rate in psychology. This is not an issue specific to psychology. As John Ioannidis noted: “most published research findings are false””. After all, scientific hypotheses are our current best guesses about phenomena, not a simple accumulation of truths.Questionable research practicesThe frustration of many psychologists is palpable because it seems so easy to publish evidence consistent with almost any hypothesis. A likely cause of both unusual findings and non-replicability is psychologists indulging in questionable research practices (QRPs).In 2012, a survey of 2,000 American psychologists found that most indulged in QRPs. Some 67% admitted selectively reporting studies that “worked”, while 74% failed to report all measures they had used. The survey also found that 71% continued to collect data until a significant result was obtained and 54% reported unexpected findings as if they were expected. And 58% excluded data after analyses. Astonishingly, more than one-third admitted they had doubts about the integrity of their own research on at least one occasion and 1.7% admitted to having faked their data.The problems associated with modern psychology are longstanding and cultural, with researchers, reviewers, editors, journals and news-media all prioritising and benefiting from the quest for novelty. This systemic bias, coupled with minimal agreement on fundamental principles in certain areas of psychology, means questionable research practices can flourish – consciously or unconsciously. Large-scale replication projects will not address the cultural problems and may even exacerbate them by presenting replication as something special that we use to target the unbelievable. Replication – whether judged as failed or successful – is a fundamental aspect of normal science and needs to be both more common and more valued by psychologists and psychology journals.By Keith Laws, Professor of Cognitive Neuropsychology, University of HertfordshireThis article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.last_img read more

Medical marijuana lowers prescription drug use, study finds

first_imgMedical marijuana is having a positive impact on the bottom line of Medicare’s prescription drug benefit program in states that have legalized its use for medicinal purposes, according to University of Georgia researchers in a study published today in the July issue of Health Affairs.The savings, due to lower prescription drug use, were estimated to be $165.2 million in 2013, a year when 17 states and the District of Columbia had implemented medical marijuana laws. The results suggest that if all states had implemented medical marijuana the overall savings to Medicare would have been around $468 million.Compared to Medicare Part D’s 2013 budget of $103 billion, those savings would have been 0.5 percent. But it’s enough of a difference to show that, in states where it’s legal, some people are turning to the drug as an alternative to prescription medications for ailments that range from pain to sleep disorders. Share on Facebook Share on Twitter LinkedIn Pinterestcenter_img Because medical marijuana is such a hot-button issue, explained study co-author W. David Bradford, who is the Busbee Chair in Public Policy in the UGA School of Public and International Affairs, their findings can give policymakers and others another tool to evaluate the pros and cons of medical marijuana legalization.“We realized this question was an important one that nobody had yet attacked,” he said.“The results suggest people are really using marijuana as medicine and not just using it for recreational purposes,” said the study’s lead author Ashley Bradford, who completed her bachelor’s degree in sociology in May and will start her master’s degree in public administration at UGA this fall.To obtain the results, they combed through data on all prescriptions filled by Medicare Part D enrollees from 2010 to 2013, a total of over 87 million physician-drug-year observations.They then narrowed down the results to only include conditions for which marijuana might serve as an alternative treatment, selecting nine categories in which the Food and Drug Administration had already approved at least one medication. These were anxiety, depression, glaucoma, nausea, pain, psychosis, seizures, sleep disorders and spasticity.They chose glaucoma in particular because while marijuana does decrease eye pressure caused by the disease by about 25 percent, its effects only last an hour. With this disorder, they expected marijuana laws–as a result of demand stimulation–to send more people to the doctor looking for relief. And because taking marijuana once an hour is unrealistic, they expected to see the number of daily doses prescribed for glaucoma medication increase.They were not disappointed. While fewer prescriptions were written for the rest of categories–dropping by 1,826 daily doses in the pain category and 265 in the depression category, for instance–the number of daily doses for glaucoma medication increased by 35.“It turns out that glaucoma is one of the most Googled searches linked to marijuana, right after pain,” David Bradford said. “Glaucoma is an extremely serious condition” that can lead quickly to blindness. “The patient then goes into the doctor, the doctor diagnoses the patient with glaucoma, and no doctor is going to let the patient walk out without being treated.”Marijuana is classified federally as a “Schedule 1” under the Controlled Substances Act. With its placement in this most restrictive of drug categories, it means that the federal government has determined it has high abuse potential, no medical use and severe safety concerns. Several states don’t agree with this assessment, and, in 1996, California became the first to legalize it for medical purposes, followed by Alaska, Oregon and Washington in 1998. As recently as June of this year, Pennsylvania and Ohio passed laws allowing its medical use.Each of the 25 states plus the District of Columbia with a medical marijuana law has different guidelines for its use and possession limits. Also, physicians in these states may only recommend its use; it remains illegal for them to prescribe the medication.Patients also can’t walk up to their neighborhood pharmacy to pick up a marijuana prescription; they have to either go to a dispensary or grow it themselves–and the legality of having marijuana plants differs by state. This lack of patient oversight by a trained health care profession, in particular, worries David Bradford.“Doctors can recommend marijuana and in some states can sign a form to help you get a card, but at that point you go out of the medical system and into the dispensaries,” he said. “What does this mean? Do you then go less frequently to the doctor and maybe your non-symptomatic hypertension, elevated blood sugar and elevated cholesterol go unmanaged? If that’s the case, that could be a negative consequence to this.”The researchers will explore these consequences further in their next study, Ashley Bradford said, which will look at medical marijuana’s effects on Medicaid, a joint federal and state program that helps with medical costs and typically serves an older population.They expect the cost savings seen in their current study to be repeated when they look at Medicaid, saying their findings suggests a more widespread state approval of medical marijuana could provide modest budgetary relief. Their current study suggests total spending by Medicare Part D would have been $468.1 million less in 2013 if all states were to have adopted medical marijuana laws by that year, an amount just under 0.5 percent of the prescription drug benefit program’s spending. Email Sharelast_img read more

It’s all in the eyes: Women and men really do see things differently

first_imgWomen and men look at faces and absorb visual information in different ways, which suggests there is a gender difference in understanding visual cues, according to a team of scientists that included psychologists from Queen Mary University of London (QMUL).The researchers used an eye tracking device on almost 500 participants at the Science Museum over a five-week period to monitor and judge how much eye contact they felt comfortable with while looking at a face on a computer screen.They found that women looked more at the left-hand side of faces and had a strong left eye bias, but that they also explored the face much more than men. The team observed that it was possible to tell the gender of the participant based on the scanning pattern of how they looked at the face with nearly 80 per cent accuracy. Given the very large sample size the researchers suggest this is not due to chance. Share Share on Twitter Pinterest LinkedIncenter_img Share on Facebook Email Lead author Dr Antoine Coutrot from QMUL’s School of Biological and Chemical Sciences said: “This study is the first demonstration of a clear gender difference in how men and women look at faces.“We are able to establish the gender of the participant based on how they scan the actors’ face, and can eliminate that it isn’t based on the culture of the participant as nearly 60 nationalities have been tested. We can also eliminate any other observable characteristics like perceived attractiveness or trustworthiness.”The participants were asked to judge how comfortable the amount of eye contact they made with the actor in a Skype-like scenario. Each participant saw the same actor (there were eight in total) during the testing period, which was around 15 minutes. At the end of the session the researchers collected personality information about the participants through questionnaires.Co-author Dr Isabelle Mareschal also from QMUL’s School of Biological and Chemical Sciences added: “There are numerous claims in popular culture that women and men look at things differently – this is the first demonstration, using eye tracking, to support this claim that they take in visual information in different ways.”The team describe their findings in the Journal of Vision and suggest the gender difference in scanning visual information might impact many research fields, such as autism diagnosis or even everyday behaviours like watching a movie or looking at the road while driving.last_img read more

Men’s economic dependency only stresses them out when they hold ‘traditional’ gender attitudes

first_imgNew research provides evidence that gender ideology might play an important role in the relationship between men’s economic dependence on their wives and allostatic load, a biomarker of chronic exposure to stress.The study, which was published in the Journal of Marriage and Family, found that men who were financially dependent on their wives and who also had more traditional beliefs about gender roles tended to have higher allostatic loads.“I wanted to include men in the discussion of gender equality. Male breadwinning is one of the most rigid gender norms that shape men’s expectations, behaviors, and feelings,” said study author Joeun Kim, a doctoral candidate at Penn State. Share on Facebook Share on Twitter LinkedIn Sharecenter_img Pinterest The researchers examined data from 348 married or cohabiting heterosexual men who had participated in the Midlife in the United States study.The study collected data on the men’s health, ideologies about gender, and income, among other things. Saliva, blood and urine samples were used to calculate the participants’ allostatic load.The researchers found that there was no general association between men having partners who make more money than they do and a higher allostatic load. But when the researchers took into account the men’s beliefs about gender roles, they found men who held more traditional views tended to have a higher allostatic load when they earned less than their wife.In other words, economically dependent men who disagreed with statements such as “Men should equally share housework” and “Men should equally share child care” were more likely to suffer a higher allostatic load.Economically dependent men who agreed with the egalitarian statements, on the other hand, tended to have lower levels of allostatic load than noneconomically dependent men.“This study shows that egalitarian gender views could promote men’s health when men encounter atypical gender circumstances,” Kim told PsyPost.“Debates over the shifting economic roles between men and women over the last few decades have ​mainly focused on conflicts between men and women. The findings of this study show that gender-flexible ideals (or non-gender essentialist ideals) could be beneficial for both men and women.”But all research includes some limitations, and the current study is no exception.“A large majority of our sample includes White middle-class men at midlife. Our findings may not hold among men with different racial or socioeconomic characteristics, different gender or sexual identities, or for younger cohorts, many of whom could hold varying expectations regarding male breadwinning responsibilities,” Kim explained.“Throughout the paper, we were very cautious about the causal languages. Given the limitation of the data, we were unable to strictly identify causal relationships between men’s economic dependency, gender ideology, and allostatic load. We encourage future studies to address this methodological gap.”The study, “Men’s Economic Dependency, Gender Ideology, and Stress at Midlife“, was authored by Joeun Kim and Nancy Luke. Emaillast_img read more

Study suggests that excessive self-presentation on Instagram can backfire

first_imgNew research provides evidence that how people present themselves on Instagram can influence how many “likes” they receive. The study, published in Computers in Human Behavior, found that the use of color-changing filters and stickers tended to negatively impact feedback on selfies.“Self-presentation is an inevitable topic these days as everyone is using social media. The majority of them use it to seek for attention from other people while they are uploading positive contents to receive more likes,” said study author Seoyeon Hong, an assistant professor at the department of public relations and advertising at Rowan University.“I find this phenomenon very interesting and wanted to test if their efforts to receive more ‘likes’ is actually working. In my study’s case, those ‘efforts’ were operationalized as using photo filters and applying social cue information.” Hong and her colleagues gathered and systematically analyzed 1,873 selfies publicly posted on Instagram. About 9 out of 10 selfies were from a female user.After dividing each photo’s likes by the user’s number of followers, the researchers found that selfies using filters tended to have fewer likes compared to selfies without any filters. On the other hand, selfies taken showing social cues, such as luxury goods, having a fitness center as the background, or displays of one’s professional identity, tended to have more likes.“The most interesting part of this paper is that excessive self-presentation can backfire. No matter how you try to get more likes, if your efforts seem too obvious, then there is less likelihood for you to get likes. For the social cues (e.g., luxurious bag and fancy occupation), it turns out to be effective while sticker filters are not,” Hong told PsyPost. “This suggests that tangible information could provide a certain level of trustworthiness, which leads to a higher number of likes. On the other hand, sticker filters are perceived as ‘distorting’ the actual self.”“Even though sticker filters are proven to be negatively impacting on the number of likes, there are always exceptions. My other study tested if excessive self-presentation is acceptable for influencers (who have many followers or are highly attractive) and the results showed that influencers are the exceptions. Instagram users did not find it annoying if excessive self-presentation was displayed by the influencers,” Hong added. The study, “Do you filter who you are? : Excessive self-presentation, social cues, and user evaluations of Instagram selfies“, was authored by Seoyeon Hong, Rosie M. Jahng, Namyeon Lee, and Kevin R. Wise. Share LinkedIn Share on Facebookcenter_img Email Share on Twitter Pinterestlast_img read more

New psychology research sheds light on motivations to engage in infidelity

first_imgShare Share on Facebook LinkedIn “However, until now we hadn’t had access to a population that was specifically using an online website for that behavior. After publishing some previous work on motivations to engage in infidelity, the opportunity to collect data from a sample of folks currently seeking an extradyadic partner presented itself, and we jumped at the chance.”In the study, 545 members of AshleyMadison.com, a popular website for those interested in having extra-marital affairs, completed a brief anonymous online survey regarding their motivations to engage in infidelity and other factors. The majority of the participants (81%) reported they were male and the average age was 48.89 years.Unsurprisingly, those who indicated that their primary partner did not adequately meet their needs were more likely to report seeking a secondary partner because they had “fallen out of love.”“One of the things that we found to be most prevalent in the data was that the secondary partner (or ‘the other woman/man’) was not as big of an influence or motivation to cheat as the ‘real world’ might lead us to believe. The biggest influence/motivation to cheat was dissatisfaction in the primary relationship, especially for males. However, greater sociosexuality (i.e., more comfort with casual sex) was very influential for both males and females,” the researchers told PsyPost.The researchers found that participants who were younger and had greater Christian identification were more likely to report seeking an affair to “get back” at their steady partner.Women and those who reported lower relationship satisfaction were more likely to report an interest in infidelity because they felt neglected. Participants who were pursuing a secondary partner because they wanted more frequent sex tended to be male, have an unrestricted sociosexual orientation, greater Christian identification, and less satisfaction with their primary partner.“We are both very interested in what happens next. For example, how does someone engage in infidelity and also attempt to continue the current primary relationship simultaneously? We expect to examine this behavior through cognitive dissonance theory, and are really interested in the magnitude of aversion that might be experienced, the dissonance reduction strategies that people might use, and whether they have to keep re-using those strategies over and over,” Hackathorn and Ashdown said.The researchers initially recruited 2,030 paying members of the website. However, 1,485 participants were excluded from the study because they were not using the website to cheat.“The AshleyMadison.com website is a dating website. Due to the hack that happened a couple of years ago, we began our study under the faulty assumption that it was a ‘cheating’ website — and of course some of that came from their slogan ‘Life is short, have an affair.’ How shocked were we to find out that a clear majority of the participants who completed our study were just in it for dating – not infidelity? Some of them were really angry about our assumption too,” Hackathorn and Ashdown said.The study, “The Webs We Weave: Predicting Infidelity Motivations and Extradyadic Relationship Satisfaction“, was published online on April 6, 2020. New research published in The Journal of Sex Research provides insights into factors associated with emotional and sexual motivations for infidelity. The findings indicate that one of the most consistent predictors is dissatisfaction with the primary partner.Satisfaction with the secondary “cheating” partner, on the other hand, is a less consistent predictor.“We have always been interested in the motivations to engage in infidelity,” said study authors Jana Hackathorn and Brien K. Ashdown, an associate professor at Murray State University and associate professor at Hobart & William Smith Colleges, respectively.center_img Email Share on Twitter Pinterestlast_img read more